Quando la filosofia va a teatro…
di Marco Casucci, Università di Perugia
In questo numero che celebra il decennale della nascita di questa rivista online e che ho il piacere e l’onore di presentare, la redazione del Il Pensare ha pensato di concedersi una “serata a teatro”, mettendo in scena uno dei più classici degli incontri. Da Platone a Nietzsche fino a Gadamer e molti altri, il pensiero non ha mai smesso di interrogarsi e di lasciarsi suggestionare da questa forma d’arte che non a caso condivide col pensiero filosofico-teoretico la stessa radice “the-” che invita da sempre alla contemplazione e allo sguardo dall’alto. In questo senso il “gran teatro del mondo” viene a costituire un luogo privilegiato a partire da cui recuperare il senso di una esperienza che non può mai essere degradata a mera astrattezza, costituendo piuttosto il luogo proprio di una visione che si offre allo spettatore solo nella misura in cui coinvolto” nel gioco di ciò che è osservato. Così i numerosi contributi che compongono questo numero della rivista ci accompagnano, sulle ali di questa suggestione, in direzione di un recupero della teatralità della filosofia intesa come esperienza fondamentale. Ciò che infatti emerge è proprio questo carattere esperienziale senza di cui né la filosofia né il teatro potrebbero essere ciò che sono, ed essere qualificati come elementi imprescindibili della nostra umanità.
La rappresentazione come dimensione dell’autentico reale. Note di riflessione su La tomba di Antigone di María Zambrano.
di Martino Bozza, Università di Perugia
María Zambrano makes herself capable, in the course of her important philosophical production, of paying attention to a multiplicity of areas of philosophical research. Particularly original is her work directed toward the deepening and revisiting of Antigone, a character from Sophocles’ tragedy. This interest in the sphere of dramaturgy does not arise so much out of a simple interest in a context that in any case may appear contiguous to philosophy, Zambrano devotes herself to reflecting on this figure certainly because she discerns in it an existential continuity with the theme of abandonment and exile that also concerns her own autobiography, but this is not the only reason for the revival of the figure
of Antigone. In the woman of the Sophoclean tragedy in fact Zambrano can also find the symbol of an existential suffering on which philosophy must necessarily dwell, when then such suffering is experienced from the perspective of a tragedy then philosophy can meet with the amplification of an existential state and so in the representation of Antigone’s suffering the sense of the pain of all humanity can find space.
Keywords: Antigone, Theater, Exile, Representation, Existence, Suffering..
Teatrale rivelarsi: promenade ermeneutica sull’identità personale attraverso l’opera belliniana.
di Vinicio Busacchi, Università di Cagliari
The study of the reality of the Theatre from a scientific point of view involves a great variety of disciplines and knowledges. Philosophy can offer important theoreticalpractical contributions to this study (and on many fronts: aesthetics, philosophy of culture, narrative hermeneutics, political philosophy etc.). The birth of the Opera does not question the validity of this discourse, above all due to the fact that the essential elements that constitute it are already present in the classical theatre. This paper traces a reflective itinerary starting from Aristotle’s Poetics, re-read through Ernesto Grassi and, above all, Paul Ricoeur. Ricoeur’s theory of identity shows how the dimensions of narration and representation substantially contribute to structuring personal identity. The work and style of Vicenzo Bellini’s Opera are here made a testing ground to verify the incisiveness, the applicative value and the hermeneutic effect of Ricoeur’s perspective.
Keywords: Poetics, Opera, Ricoeur, Narrative Identity, Bellini.
El gran teatro del mundo: il senso teatrale della metafisica schopenhaueriana.
di Marco Casucci, Università di Perugia
This essay aims at investigating the metaphorical and hermeneutical sense of theater in Schopenhauer metaphysics. In particular, the main work of Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, seems to have a peculiar structure that puts it in relationship with the hermeneutical structure of the theater itself, as it has been described by Gadamer’s Truth and Method. Thus, by putting in relationship one of the play by Calderón de la Barca titled El gran teatro del mundo, this essay tries to outline the deep sense that theater has in Schopenhauer’s philosophy, not only as a part of his aesthetic doctrine, but also as for his entire metaphysics..
Keywords: Metaphysics, Theater, World, Schopenhauer, Calderon de la Barca.
Nel dramma dell’essere. Opera in tre atti di Luigi Pareyson.
di Maria Benedetta Curi, Istituto Universitario Sophia
This essay invites you to participate in a “show lesson” on the performance of thought of the Italian philosopher Luigi Pareyson, following three “transcendental” acts: the first dedicated to the aesthetic experience of beauty, the second to the hermeneutic experience of truth, the third to the ontological experience of freedom. Participating in this way in a staging of the drama of Being, capable of revealing its abysmal depth, it is possible to rediscover the intimate closeness between theatre and philosophical theorein, which even today can help philosophizing to preserve its dynamism and per-formativity.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Hermeneutics, Freedom, Dramatic Ontology, Per-formativity
Sulla funzione etopoietica del teatro. Una lettura foucaultiana della Poetica di Aristotele.
di Michele Di Bartolo, Università di Perugia
According to Foucault’s later writings, the ancient philosophical schools were not only places of research and transmission of knowledge, but also communities where techniques, aimed at shaping the self were being experimented. Although Foucault excluded Aristotle from such a reconstruction of the ancient thought, in this paper I am going to examine the position the Stagirite occupied or might have occupied in it. For this purpose, Aristotle’s Poetics will play a strategic role, as it makes the experience of artwork a particular form of áskesis.
Keywords: Aristotle, Foucault, Poetics, Áskesis, Self
Lo spettacolo del mondo. Heidegger, Agamben e Arendt lettori delle Elegie Duinesi di Rilke.
di Letizia Konderak, Università di Bari – University of Rijeka
The metaphor of the theatre dwells in the very beginning of the Greek philosophy as a political analogy, like Plato’s and Aristotle’s political works show. The realm of the human affairs was likened to a theatrical stage because of its uncertainty and because the judgment of the many was more likely to grasp it than the lonely contemplation of the philosopher. This paper analyses Heidegger’s, Agamben’s and Arendt’s attempts to ontologize the theatrical metaphor, through the language which Rilke had coined in his Duineser Elegien: the poet names Open the space where the animal lives, while men inhabit the World. Based on the phenomenological methodology, the three authors recognize in the world not just a stage for the appearance of the worldly beings, but also a condition of possibility for the appearance itself. Heidegger and Agamben analyze the relationship between the open and the world, aiming at distinguishing the animal from the human being: in their view, the world and the open are some of the human being’s structures. Arendt recognizes in the world the condition of possibility for the appearance; nevertheless, she means by world the stable and durable product of the human work, which saves men from the ineluctable metabolism with the nature.
Keywords: Open, Nature, Earth, Appearance, Animal
Tra commedia e tragedia. Il teatro come sanzione sociale e l’estetica pragmatistica del tragico in Bergson.
di Mattia Loreti, Università di Perugia
The essay focuses on Bergson’s text Le Rire to make explicit the link between philosophical thought and the theatrical form. In particular, starting from the dual status recognized for the “comic”, as a form that participates in both the artistic dimension and the demands of social life, it is intended to extend this inherent duplicity to theatrical representation in the two classical forms of drama, comedy and tragedy. Bergson’s reflections on the structures and aims of these two theatrical genres are the hermeneutic key with which to read the theatrical “space” as a dynamic form articulated between the functional impersonality fully inserted in the demands of social sanction of comedy, and the personal tension that moves towards the rupture of social dynamics to make room for the philosophical gesture of the tragic author’s effort of sincerity. This duplicity that intrinsically animates the theatre makes explicit its vitality that oscillates between the social dimension and its philosophical nature, the latter being capable of explaining the link between art, theatre and philosophy.
Keywords: Bergson, Philosophy and Theatre, Social Sanction, Pragmatist Aesthetics, Tragic Sincerity.
«Don Giovanni vive e si agita, mentre Don Chisciotte dorme e sogna». Volontà o redenzione? Da una riflessione di Unamuno su Don Juan Tenorio (con la traduzione di uno scritto di Miguel de Unamuno: “Riguardo al Don Juan Tenorio”).
di Marco Moschini, Università di Perugia
This article is dedicated to the relationship that innerly relates philosophy and theatre. The author of this article emphasises how life itself is reproduced in the theatrical work, introducing the question of the search for the meaning of life: this is the element that most connects theatre to philosophy. In theatre, as in myth and narration, the existential dimensions emerge that lead philosophy to question everything that asks for an answer to the question of meaning. And it is known that this question will never be resolved, but always repeated and inexhaustibly posed. Starting from these premises, this article focuses on certain aspects of Miguel de Unamuno’s thought, comparing the figure of Don Quixote and Don Juan.
Keywords: Theatre and Philosophy, Meaning of Life, Unamuno, Don Quixote, Don Juan.
Ermeneutica storica tra mito, destino e creaturalità. Sul teatro filosofico in Benjamin e Schmitt.
di Enrico Palma, Università di Catania
In this essay I try to compare the hermeneutic and theoretical proposals by Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt, in particular concerning theatre, history and salvation. Primarily, will be discussed the relationship between the two authors, and then attempt to problematize very huge questions like the relation history-art and, following Schmitt, the influence of history in the drama. Our aim, finally, is to argue the figure of king (as Benjamin did in terms of highest representation of post-edenic human condition) trying to applicate these concepts to the particular case of Hamlet, in terms of political philosophy and esthetic redemption of creature towards art.
Keywords: Theatre, Politics, History, Benjamin, Schmitt, Hamlet, Sovranity, Redemption.
Theatre of the absurd as the philosophical response to the meaning of life. The case of Camus’ The Stranger.
di Luka Pavkić, Pavao Žitko, University of Osijek
The philosophical tradition clearly distinguishes the philosophy of theatre from the theatre as philosophy. In the present contribution, the second meaning of the term will be mainly considered, since it can be philosophically explained as a real ontological category of the existing reality. The theatre expresses the essence of philosophising as a medium directed towards our tragic internalisation of the theatrical act. The history of philosophy on the subject underlines the importance of the French existentialist tradition in an ontological and anthropological key.
Keywords: Existentialism, Theatre, Camus, Ontology.
«Ei blot til lyst». Bergman e i molteplici livelli del theatrum in Fanny e Alexander.
di Dario Tordoni, Università di Perugia
In Fanny and Alexander, his latest work for the cinema, Bergman stages a world in which the legacy of the Baroque conception, according to which life is nothing but a play, is clear. The meaning of the work is summarized in the opening scene where we find a puppet theater placed at the ideal crossroads of a triplicity of meaning levels that blow up the conventional boundaries between “macro-cosm” and “micro-cosm”. Alexander’s training path is both coming of age and apprenticeship in the ability to tell stories. And it happens in comparison with the triple meaning of the theater exposed since the incipit. Through a reflection on the masks that men inevitably wear and on a different way of understanding God, the path of the young protagonist reveals itself as a journey of initiation into the plastic force of the imagination, a path that is theoretical and ethical at the same time.
Keywords: Fanny&Alexander, Bergman, Theatre, Imagination, Mask, God.
Arte come spazio di riconoscimento tra Maria Lai e Simone Weil.
di Letizia Masia, Università di Perugia – Université Catholique de Lyon
The dimension of art in Maria Lai fits into a context of recognition aimed at the understanding of themselves and the other. The communion and sharing of art are part of a context in which aesthetics and ethics communicate, thus bringing the Italian artist Lai closer to the philosophical thought of Simone Weil.
Keywords: Art, Recognition, Communion, Ethics.